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Muscle Effort
External Motion Resistance Energy
Body Weight & G-force

1. Adult Exercise Efficiency Score*                     
 12-18 out of 100 
(for adult muscle strength building)    

2. Adult usability**                                             moderate to difficult 
(Joint/disc compression levels) 

3. Motion Range***                                                      Wide

4. Opposing Muscles ****                                               No 

5. Best Use *****                                                      Cardio Exercise 

6. External Resistance Direction ****** 
              Skeletal - Parallel 


The traditional 
elliptical machine suffers from the same primary problem as treadmills, that body weight takes on far more resistance energy than do muscles. However unlike the treadmill the elliptical is powered by muscle effort, and so provides considerably more External Motion Resistance Energy  in directions that hinders contractions, much as standing on (not seated) a bicycle. 

However, because body weight is still entirely supported by leg joints, not a seat, the efficiency of the elliptical falls in-between the treadmill and bike. 

The elliptical also gives its users a choice to apply upper body muscles and joints, which is not part of the traditional treadmill. A small amount of body weight may be supported by the hands, allowing the knees to accept that much more muscle effort for the same amount of pain.  

The elliptical may be an outstanding cardio workout machine, even better than a bicycle, for the still developing joints and spinal discs of still growing bodies up to around age 20.    

* A score of 100 means that all External Motion Resistance Energy is only opposing muscle contractions, just as a score of 0 means that no External Motion Resistance Energy is opposing muscle contractions, as a score of 50 means that the skeleton works just as hard as do muscle.  

**  Adult Usability:

Gentle (Almost no compression force travels parallel to extremities or spine) Should not build up adult Joint/disc damage 
light - (Compression force on Joints/discs is lighter than Tension Force pulling against contractions) 
Moderate (similar amounts of joint/disc compression, as muscle contraction opposition
Difficult (most External Motion Resistance is used up during joint and disk compression

*** Motion Range is a estimate of how much of the targeted muscle range is opposed. Very Limited, Limited, Wide, Complete 

****  Opposing Muscles. can the exercise deeply oppose muscle contractions of all motions

***** Best Use 

****** Any muscle or cardio exercise method or workout machine that directs all External Motion Resistance Energy, into the body through the hands or feet is Skeletal Loading, as the forces move parallel to the skeleton. 
Any that directs some to all of this energy against contractions first crosses the body or extremities thus allowing muscles to work harder than when joints and discs must first handle all involved forces,  which is better for adults, but not for children. These are called Muscle Based exercises.  

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